eISSN : 2234-6856
pISSN : 2093-6966
Insert title here
Author's Guide


The Journal of Pharmacopuncture is an international, peer-reviewed open-access journal published in English by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI). The journal has provided high-quality papers quarterly since it was launched in 1997. Its ISSN was changed in September 2010 from 1226-4849 to 2093-6966 when its title was changed from daehanyakchimhakhweiji to the Journal of Pharmacopuncture. The journal aims to publish evidence-based, scientific research papers in the multidisciplinary field of traditional and modern medicine through a strict review process by a panel of experts. As an international journal, the Journal of Pharmacopuncture also aims to present major advances and new developments contributing to the advancement of complementary and alternative medicine, with a special focus on pharmacology, acupuncture and a combination of pharmacology and acupuncture. The journal is dedicated to disseminating current data and ideas and fostering debate on issues related to complementary and alternative medicine and to providing better information to both the general public and experts. In addition, the journal requires high standards of research ethics to maintain the integrity of science. The official title of the journal is 'Journal of Pharmacopuncture', and the abbreviated title is 'J. Pharmacopunct.' For submission, see the details at http://www.journal-jop.org/.



The Journal of Pharmacopuncture covers a wide range of basic and clinical science research relevant to all aspects of the biotechnology of integrated approaches using both pharmacology and acupuncture therapeutics, including research involving pharmacology, acupuncture studies and pharmacopuncture studies. The subjects are mainly divided into three categories: pharmacology (applied phytomedicine, plant sciences, pharmacology, toxicology, medicinal plants, traditional medicines, herbal medicine, Sasang constitutional medicine, herbal formulae, foods, agricultural technologies, naturopathy, etc.), acupuncture (acupressure, electroacupuncture, laser acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, etc.), and pharmacopuncture (aqua-acupuncture, meridian pharmacopuncture, eight-principles pharmacopuncture, animal-based pharmacopuncture, mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture, bee venom therapy, needle embedding therapy, implant therapy, etc.). Other categories include chuna treatment, veterinary acupuncture and related animal studies, alternative medicines for treating cancer and cancer-related symptoms, etc. Broader topical coverage on the effects of acupuncture, the medical plants used in traditional and alternative medicine, pharmacological action and other related modalities, such as anthroposophy, homeopathy, ayurveda, bioelectromagnetic therapy, chiropractic, neural therapy and meditation, can be considered to be within the journal's scope if based on acupoints and meridians. Submissions of original articles, review articles, systematic reviews, case reports, brief reports, opinions, commentaries, medical lectures, letters to the editor, photo-essays, technical notes, and book reviews are encouraged. Providing free access to the full text of all current and archived articles on its website (http://www.journal-jop.org/), also searchable through a Google Scholar search, the journal is indexed in Pubmed Central (PMC), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and the Korea Citation Index (KCI). Its current circulation is 1200.


The Publication Frequency

The Journal of Pharmacopuncture publishes in print and online as a quarterly, on 31st of March, 30th of June, 30th of September and 31st of December.


Financial Support

This journal was supported by the the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies (KOFST) grant funded by the Korea government (MOEF&MSIT).


ISSN Number and DOI prefix

ISSN (print): 2093-6966

ISSN (Online): 2234-6856

DOI Prefix: 10.3831


1. Electronic Submission of Manuscript

Manuscripts should be submitted online via the Journal of Pharmacopunctrue online manuscript submission and review

system at http://www.journal-jop.org/.

The corresponding author should submit a manuscript and indicate the address and phone number for correspondence in the title page of the manuscript. If available, a fax number and e-mail address would be helpful. The revised manuscript should be submitted through the same web system under the same identification numbers.

For any further inquiry relating to manuscript submission, please contact the Editorial Office (kpi-jpharmaco@naver.com).


2. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants or animals, formal review and approval or formal review and waiver by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is recommended. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/ b3/17c.pdf).

For investigations of humans, the investigators should state in the Methods Section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., oral or written). For more details about ethical approval of this journal, please see Journal of Pharmacopuncture Ethical approval.


3. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

The corresponding author of an article is asked to inform the Editor of the authors’ potential conflicts of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should be disclosed in a cover letter even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript. Include financial disclosure statement in the cover letter at the time of manuscript submission. Such conflicts may be financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems. The authors should make sure the Editors are aware of any potential conflicts of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data.


All authors are required to sign and submit the following:


I certify that all my affiliations with or financial involvements in, within the past 5 years and foreseeable future, any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript are completely disclosed (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, and royalties).

Authors who have no relevant financial interests should provide a statement indicating that they have no financial interests related to the material in the manuscript.


4. Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs, and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees and should be submitted with the manuscript and indicated in the Acknowledgment Section of the manuscript. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to deidentify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.


5. Page charges

No publication fee is charged to authors.


6. Embargo Policy

All information regarding the content and the publication date of accepted manuscripts is strictly confidential. Unauthorized prepublication release of an accepted manuscript may result in rescission of acceptance and rejection of the paper. Information contained in or about accepted articles cannot appear in print, audio, video, or digital form or be released by the news media before its publication date (or other specified embargo release date for cases in which articles are released early).


7. Copyright

Published manuscripts become the permanent property of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute and may not be published elsewhere in any form without written permission.


8. Peer Review

At least 2 anonymous reviewers are recommended by the Editorial Board and the Editor-in-Chief. All information on the reviewers is confidential and so is that of the contributing authors. Authors’ names and affiliations are removed during peer review.

The invited reviewers should response to the offer of review within 3 days. Recommended decisions can vary from “Accept,” “Major revision,” “Minor revision,” or “Reject.” Reviewers should their decisions on the journal’s electronic manuscript system. Emails from reviewers and authors are considered as digital signatures.

Upon the review decision, the paper is returned back to the corresponding author. Each comment by the reviewers should be addressed one point by one point. The corresponding author clearly indicates what alterations have been made using underline or highlight. The revised version should be uploaded online. The final decision on whether to accept is left to the reviewers. As for reject, the reviewers should cite specific reasons as to how the decision was reached.


9. Authorship

The authorship should be given according to 1) making substantial contribution to the conception and design of the study, or acquisition, interpretation and analysis of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for the important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published.

When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.


10. Revised Manuscript

When manuscripts are returned to authors for revision, the author should carefully follow the directions in the editor’s letter. A revised version of the manuscript and a cover letter should be prepared with point-to-point replies to the comments given by reviewers and indicate how the revisions have been made by underlining or highlighting them.

If references, tables, or figures are moved, added, or deleted during the revision process, renumber them to reflect such changes so that all tables, references and figures are cited in numeric order.

If the revised paper is not received within 6 months of decision, or if other necessary arrangements are not made by the editor, the manuscript is considered to have been withdrawn.


11. Categories of Articles

The Journal of Pharmacopuncture publishes original articles, review articles, systematic reviews (including meta-analyses), case reports, brief reports, opinions, commentaries, medical lectures, letter to the editors, photo-essays, technical reports and book reviews.


11.1. Original articles

Original articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, other observational studies, surveys with high response rates, cost-effectiveness analyses and decision analyses, and studies of screening and diagnostic tests. Section headings should be Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), and References. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective hypothesis; the methods (including the study setting (design) and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria and/or participation or response rates, or data sources, how these were selected for the study, the essential features of any interventions, and the main outcome measures); the main results of the study; a discussion section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions. Data included in research reports must be original and should be as timely and current as possible. The text should be limited approximately to 4000 words (including figures and reference). Articles that are longer than these guidelines require permission from the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission. The number of references is limited to 40.


11.2. Review articles

Review articles describe new developments of significance in the fields of pharmacology, acupuncture and a combination of pharmacology and acupuncture and highlight unresolved questions and future directions. Most reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered for publication. Review articles should have an Abstract, an Introduction, and brief main headings. The text should be limited to 5000 words (including tables, figures and references). Articles that are longer than these guidelines require permission from the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission.


11.3. Systematic reviews (including meta-analyses)

Systematic reviews are systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. All articles or data sources should be searched and selected systematically for inclusion and should be critically evaluated, and the search and selection process should be described in the manuscript. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes should be described for each article or data source. The data sources should be as current as possible, ideally with the search having been conducted within several months of manuscript submission. The text is limited to 6000 words (including figures and references). Articles that are longer than these guidelines require permission from the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission. The number of references is limited to 50.


11.4. Case reports

Case reports are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel findings in clinical studies.

Section headings should be Abstract, Introduction, Case report, Discussion. The text should be limited to 2000 words (including figures and references). Articles that are longer than these guidelines require permission from the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission. A maximum of 6 figures/tables may be included. The number of references is limited to 20.


11.5. Brief reports

Brief reports are short peer-reviewed papers presenting novel results in pharmacology, acupuncture and a combination of pharmacology and acupuncture. Section headings should be Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusions. The text should be limited to 2000 words (including figures and references). A maximum of 4 figures/tables may be included.


11.6. Opinions

Opinions are papers expressing personal interests and thoughts in trends related to general health. The text should be limited to 400 words. The number of references is limited to 5.


11.7. Commentaries

Commentaries are reviews of previous articles published in the journal. The text should be limited to 400 words with a maximum of 5 references. They do not reflect the opinions of the Editorial Office.


11.8. Medical lectures

The subject of medical lectures is decided by the Editorial Committee. The text is limited to 400 words with a maximum of 5 references.


11.9. Letter to the editors

Letters to the editors are letters about reader’s opinions or issues of concern on previously published articles in the journal. Receipts of letters will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. They should be limited to 400 words with a maximum of 5 references.

Letters must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication and should not include unpublished data. Letters will be published at the discretion of the editors and are subject to abridgement and editing for style and content.


11.10. Photo-essays

Photo-essays demonstrate information and physical exam findings by the use of images. Unlike original articles, educational purposes are the main focus. As many pictures as necessary may be included. The text should be limited to 400 words. The number of references is limited to 5.


11.11. Technical notes

Technical notes include short comments and replies to articles on topical issues published in the journal. They also present new techniques for instruments, herbal medicine, and integrative medicine. The text should be limited to 400 words.


11.12. Book reviews

Book reviews evaluate books on pharmacology, acupuncture, a combination of pharmacology and acupuncture, and related subjects. Receipt of book reviews will not be acknowledged nor are authors generally consulted before publication. The text should be limited to 400 words and accepted manuscripts are subject to editing for clarity and space.


12. Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements


12.1. Electronic submission of manuscript

Manuscripts should be submitted online via the Journal of Pharmacopunctrue online manuscript submission and review system at www.journal.ac. For any further inquiry relating to manuscript submission, please contact the Editorial Office (editorial@journal.ac).


12.2. Manuscript components

Articles submitted by internet-based system should be prepared in double space on an A4 (210 x 297 mm) with a standard 12-point font using MS word.

•Automatic page numbering may be used, but should not be used other kinds of automatic formatting, such as footnotes, endnotes, headers and footers.

•Text, references, tables, figures, and legends should be put in one file, with each table and figure on a new page.

•Figures that are line drawings or photographs must be submitted separately in high-resolution EPS or TIFF format (or alternatively in high-resolution JPEG format). Please ensure that files are supplied at the correct resolution of a minimum of 500 dpi. If a paper is accepted, authors may be asked to submit higher resolution figure files.


Please ensure that the following submission documents are also included, where applicable:

•A cover letter: It must include your name, address, telephone and fax number, e-mail address, and a list of up to five suggested reviewers with their contact information and must state that all authors have contributed to the paper and have never submitted the manuscript, in whole or in part, to other journals.

•A conflict of interest disclosure statement (see relevant section above).

•Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee (see relevant sections above and below).

•Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities (see relevant section above).

•Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section above and below).

•Where material has been reproduced from other copy-righted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.


12.3. Basic criteria

Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear, concise and grammatically correct, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

For non-native English-speaking authors, we suggest that manuscripts be checked and edited by a native English speaker. Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.

In addition to the Uniform Requirements, a number of reporting guidelines have been developed by groups of experts to facilitate reporting of research studies or clinical trials (http://www.equator-network.org/resource-centre/library-ofhealthresearchreporting/library/). For more information, refer to the following reporting guidelines:


•CONSORT Statement (reporting of randomized controlled trials)

•STARD (reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies)

•STROBE (reporting of observational studies in epidemiology)

•QUOROM, recently renamed PRISMA (reporting of systematic reviews)

•MOOSE (reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies)


12.4. Title page

The title page should contain the following information:

•Category of paper placed on top left side

•A full title of article with the intial letter of the first word using capial letter

•Names (spelled out in full) of all authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated

•Short running title not exceeding 50 characters

•Provide affiliation numbers in superscripts 1,2,3 and an asterisk (•) for the corresponding author.

•Corresponding author’s details(name, e-mail address, mailing address, telephone and fax number)

*The name of each author should be written with the family

name last, e.g. Charles Darwin. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work.


12.5. Abstract and Key Words

Provide an abstract of less than 300 words. They are followed by headings Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusion. The manuscript abstract for a Case Report is unstructured.

Key words up to 6 are allowed using the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser. Html). Otherwise, the authors should provide concise and informative terms.


12.6. Main text

The text for original articles should include the following sections: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, and Discussion. The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings. The Materials and methods Section should be sufficiently detailed. Subheadings may be used to organize the Results and Discussion. Sections for case reports are: Introduction, Case report, Discussion.


12.6.1. Abbreviations

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in both the abstract and the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in brackets. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. The use of abbreviations should be kept to a minimum.


12.6.2. Ethical approval

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is recommended, and such approval should be stated in the methods section. Investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees should state whether the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki were followed. For work involving experimental animals, the guidelines for the care and use of the animals that were followed should be included in the methods section.


12.6.3. Informed consent

For investigations of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e. oral or written).


12.6.4. Identification of patients in descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees

Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.


12.6.5. Units of measure

Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Articles that contain numerous conversion factors may list them together in a paragraph at the end of the Methods Section. In tables and figures, a conversion factor to SI should be presented in a footnote or legend. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

12.6.6. Names of drugs, devices, and other products

Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name for medicinal substances unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. The oriental medicine prescription should be marked by Korean pronunciation first and only the first word is capitalized. Words that stand for ingredients, such as soups, acids or pills, should be indicated by lower case letters after using a hyphen (-) (e.g., Chungpesagan-tang). The name of oriental medicine may not be marked only with the name of the herbal medicine; rather the actually used part or measuring method must be marked with proper English (e.g., licorice (broiled): Broiled root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH).


12.6.7. Acupuncture nomenclature and traditional medicine terminologies

Refer to the Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature (http://www. wpro.who.int/publications/pub_9290611057.htm) and WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region (http://www.wpro. who.int/ publications/PUB_9789290612487.htm) published by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific.


12.6.8. Controlled trials of acupuncture in clinical studies

Use the preferred reporting criteria based on the Guidelines for Clinical Research in Acupuncture (http://www.wpro.who. int/publications/pub_9290611146.htm).


12.6.9. Statistical requirements

Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except case reports. Use correct nomenclature of statistical methods (e.g., two-sample t test, not unpaired t test). All P values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy unless they are less than 0.001. Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.


12.6.10. Reproduced material

The Journal of Pharmacopuncture does not republish text, tables, figures, or other material from other publishers, except under rare circumstances. Please delete any such materials and replace them with originals.


12.6.11. Gene names, symbols, and accession numbers

Authors describing genes or related structures in a manuscript

should include the names and the official symbols provided by the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Before submission of a research manuscript reporting on large genomic data sets (e.g., protein or DNA sequences), the data sets should be deposited in a publicly available database, such as NCBI’s GenBank, and a complete accession number (and version number, if appropriate) must be provided in the Methods Section or the Acknowledgment of the manuscript.


12.6.12. Acknowledgments

General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis, etc should be listed at the end of the text, including the names of the individuals involved. All financial and material support for the research and the work should be clearly and completely identified. Any conflicts of interest must be explicitly declared.


12.7. References

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and the completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

The sequence is authors, title of papers journal name, year published, and volume followed by pages. Follow the style shown by the examples below. For citations from other sources, refer to “The NLM Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2nd ed. Bethesda, Maryland, USA. National Library of Medicine. 2007 (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine)

•References, numbered with Arabic numerals, should be assembled on a separate sheet and should be limited to those cited in the text.

•Each reference citation within the main body of the text should be an Arabic numeral enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, not a superscript.

•References must be numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and listed in numerical order in the reference list; references must not be alphabetized.

•References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.

•Abstracts should not be cited unless the abstract is the only available reference to an important concept.

•Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication as references.

•Include all the authors' names up to 6. The rest is followed by et al.

•Abbreviate journal names based on Index Medicus and PubMed.


Examples of Citations to Journal Articles


1. Standard journal article

Grabbe S, Schwarz T. Immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in elicitation of allergic contact hypersensitivity. Immunol Today. 1998;19(1):37-44.


2. Journal article with more than 6 authors

Hallal AH, Amortegui JD, Jeroukhimov IM, Casillas J, Schulman CI, Manning RJ, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;200(6): 869-75.


3. Journal article with organization as author

Institute of Medical Illustrators. Photography of cleft audit patients. J Audiov Media Med. 2004 Dec;27(4):170-4.


4. Journal article with year having a supplement

Doherty DE, Briggs DD Jr. Long-term nonpharmacologic management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Cornerstone. 2004;Suppl 2:S29-34.


5. Journal articles not in English

Batysheva TT, Kostenko EV, Ryl'skii AV, Boiko AN. [Movalis in treatment of painful shoulder syndrome in poststroke patients]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2004;104(12):60-1. Russian.


Examples of Citations to Entire Books


1. Standard book with initials for authors

Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 194 p.


Eyre HJ, Lange DP, Morris LB. Informed decisions: the complete book of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; c2002. 768 p.


2. Book authors with optional full first names given

Hamric, Ann B.; Spross, Judith A.; Hanson, Charlene M. Advanced practice nursing: an integrative approach. 3rd ed. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Saunders; c2005. 979 p.


3. Books not in English

Katsunori K. [Euthanasia and criminal law]. Tokyo: Seibundo; 2003. 198 p. Japanese.


Examples of Citations to Parts of Books


1. Standard chapter in a book

Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Academic Press; c2006. Chapter 24, Regression and correlation methods; p. 447-86.


Reed JG, Baxter PM. Library use: handbook for psychology. 3rd ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2003. Chapter 2, Selecting and defining the topic; p. 11-25.


Examples of Citations to Contributions to Books


1. Standard reference to a contributed chapter

Whiteside TL, Heberman RB. Effectors of immunity and rationale for immunotherapy. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC Jr, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E, 3rd, editors. Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker Inc; 2003. p. 221-8.


Examples of Citations to Conference Proceedings


1. Standard proceedings with a book title in addition to the conference title

Ferreira de Oliveira MJ, editor. Accessibility and quality of health services. Proceedings of the 28th Meeting of the European Working Group on Operational Research Applied to Health Services (ORAHS); 2002 Jul 28-Aug 2; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Frankfurt (Germany): Peter Lang; c2004. 287 p.


2. Standard proceedings without a book title in addition to the conference title

Dittmar A, Beebe D, editors. 1st Annual International IEEEEMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology; 2000 Oct 12-14; Palais des Congres, Lyon, France. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; c2000. 643 p.


Examples of Citations to Homepages

1. Standard citation to a homepage

Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/CIMER/.


2. Homepage with author(s)

Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from: http://bama.ua.edu/~jhooper/.


Examples of Citations to Entire Dissertations and Theses


1. Standard dissertation

Jones DL. The role of physical activity on the need for revision total knee arthroplasty in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee [dissertation]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: University of Pittsburgh; 2001. 436 p.


Liu-Ambrose TY. Studies of fall risk and bone morphology in older women with low bone mass [dissertation]. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia; 2004. 290 p.


2. Standard master's thesis

Roguskie JM. The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 pilin glycan in virulence [master's thesis]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: Duquesne University; 2005. 111 p.


Weisbaum LD. Human sexuality of children and adolescents: a comprehensive training guide for social work professionals [master's thesis]. Long Beach (CA): California State University, Long Beach; 2005. 101 p.


12.8. Tables

Number all tables on Arabic numbers in the order of their citation in the text. Table title for each table (a brief phrase not a sentence, preferably no longer than 10 to 15 words). The use of abbreviations should be kept to minimum except when they appear for the first time. Include all tables in a single file following the manuscript.

Refer to Categories of Articles because there may be a limit on the number of tables for the type of manuscript. If a table must be continued, repeat the title on a second sheet, followed by "(cont)." Tables should be typed double-spaced on separate pages in as simple a form as possible. They include a short descriptive title typed directly above it with the table content between horizontal lines and essential footnotes below it. Information requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using these symbols (in the order of appearance): •, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, #, ••, ††, ‡‡, Abbreviations used in the table must be defined in the footnotes. If data from another sources included, whether published or unpublished, the original source must be acknowledged.


12.9. Figures

8 x 8 cm is preferred for photographs but one-page width (16.5 cm in width x 8 cm in length) is also acceptable. Figure files of sufficient quality should be submitted for approving the final color galley proof. All photographs should be correctly exposed, sharply focused, and prepared in files of 500 dpi. When the figures are reduced to the size of a single-column or of a single- page width, the smallest parts of the figure must be legible. Points of observation should be noted with different symbols rather than with different types of lines and their significance can be directly shown in the body of the figure or in the legend.

For photomicrographs, include the type of specimen, original magnification, and stain. Each figure should be submitted separately in high resolution EPS or TIFF format (or alternatively in high resolution JPEG format).

Number figures using Arabic numerals in the order they are cited in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the legend. Figure legends should indicate the anatomic area and/or pathologic condition shown. Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally.

The number of figures is different depending on the type of the article. Multiple figures under one figure number should be marked on the photographs using capital alphabet letters, at the lower right corner. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photographs should contrast well with background. The legend for each light microscopic photographs should include names of stain and magnification. Indicate the magnification with a scale bar on each micrograph.


12.10. Image integrity:

Preparation of scientific images (clinical images, radiographic images, micrographs, gels, etc) for publication must preserve the integrity of the image data. Digital adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color applied uniformly to an entire image are permissible as long as these adjustments do not selectively highlight, misrepresent, obscure, or eliminate specific elements in the original figure, including the background. Selective adjustments applied to individual elements in an image are not permissible. Individual elements may not be moved within an image field, deleted, or inserted from another image. Cropping may be used for efficient image display but must not misrepresent or alter interpretation of the image by selectively eliminating relevant visual information. Juxtaposition of elements from different parts of a single image or from different images, as in a composite, must be clearly indicated by the addition of dividing lines, borders, and/or panel labels.

When inappropriate image adjustments are detected, authors will be asked for an explanation and will be requested to submit the image as originally captured prior to any adjustment, cropping, or labeling. Authors may be asked to resubmit the image prepared in accordance with the above standards.


12.11. Preparation for Publication

Accepted manuscripts are copy-edited according to the journal’s style, and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are e-mailed by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Requests to publish corrections should be sent to the Editorial Office. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor. It is printed an acid-free paper.


Editorial Office

Journal of Pharmacopuncture

4F AKOM Building, 91, Heojun-ro, Gangseo-gu, Seoul 07525, Korea

Tel: +82 2 2658 9051 Fax: +82 2 2658 9136

E-mail: kpi-jpharmaco@naver.com

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